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1861
Postage Stamps of the United States First Issued in 1861
  see also: All Designs of the 1861-1868 Regular Issues
  Printed by the National Bank Note Company · Designs by James Macdonough
  Frames by Cyrus Durand (intricate lathwork) and William D. Nichols - Lettering by Wm. Nichols and David M. Cooper

1¢ Franklin
Engraver: Joseph Pease
3¢ Rose Washington
Engraver: Joseph Pease
5¢ Brown Jefferson
Engraver: William Marshall
10¢ Washington
Engraver: William Marshall
12¢ Washington
Engraver: William Marshall
24¢ Lilac Washington
Engraver: William Marshall
30¢ Franklin
Engraver: Joseph P. Pease
90¢ Washington
Engraver: Joseph P. Pease

The examples shown are proofs of the 1861-1868 designs
Presidents: Jan.1-Mar.3: James Buchanan Mar.4-Dec.31: Abraham Lincoln
Postmasters General: 1/1-2/11: Joseph Holt 2/12-3/4: Horatio King 3/5-12/31: M. Blair
Domestic Letter Rate*: under 3000 mi. per ½ oz.: 3¢
Domestic Letter Rate: over 3000 mi. per ½ oz.: 10¢ - Prepayment compulsory, stamp required
Foreign Letter Rate: under 2500 mi. per ½ oz.: 10¢
Foreign Letter Rate: over 2500 mi. per ½ oz.: 20¢ - except where otherwise adjusted by treaty
Drop Letters: 1¢ - prepayment required after February 27
Newspapers and Circulars up to 3 oz.: 1¢, with one added cent for each additional oz.
Carrier Fee (not available in all cities): 1¢
Registry Fee: 5¢ - no return receipt to sender - paid in cash - stamp not required
Admitted to the Union: Kansas on January 29, 1861

Important Events in U.S. Postal History: The Pony Express officially quit delivering letters on Oct. 24, 1861, made partially obsolete by the completion of the trans-continental telegraph. From Nov. 1861 until the end of the year, the stamps of the 1851 issue were gradually demonetized by region.

* On May 1, 1861 the letter rate was 3¢ if it stayed East of the Rockies, and 10¢ if it crossed the Rockies, both regardless of distance, effectively eliminating the 3000 mi. distinction. This distinction was dropped as of July 1, 1863.
The following postage stamp varieties were first issued by the U.S. in 1861:

Designs of 1851-1860 - Perforated 15.5 - First Issued in 1861
Scott 18 - 1¢ Blue Franklin (Plate 12) - 1851 Design - Type I - EDU: Jan.  25, 1861
Scott 20 - 1¢ Blue Franklin (Plate 11) - 1851 Design - Type II - EDU: Jan. 12, 1861
Scott 20 - 1¢ Blue Franklin (Plate 12) - 1851 Design - Type II - EDU: Jan. 21, 1861
Scott 22 - 1¢ Blue Franklin (Plate 11) - 1851 Design - Type IIIa - EKU: Dec. ?, 1860
Scott 22 - 1¢ Blue Franklin (Plate 12) - 1851 Design - Type IIIa - EDU: Jan. 25, 1861
Scott 30 - 5¢ Orange to deep orange brown Jefferson - Type II - EDU: May 8, 1861 - about 570,000 issued

Designs of 1861-1867 No Grills Perf 12
Scott 63 - 1¢ Blue Franklin - EDU: Aug. 17 (off cover); Aug. 21, 1861 (on cover) - about 138 million issued
Scott 63a - 1¢ Ultramarine Franklin
Scott 63b - 1¢ Dark Blue Franklin
Scott 64 - 3¢ Pink Washington - EDU: Aug. 17, 1861 (FDC) - about 100,000 issued
Scott 64a - 3¢ Pigeon Blood Pink - Washington EDU: Aug. 21, 1861
Scott 64b - 3¢ Rose Pink Washington - EDU: Aug. 17 (FDC), 1861
Scott 65 - 3¢ Rose Washington - EDU: Aug. 19, 1861 - about 1.8 billion issued
Scott 67 - 5¢ Buff Jefferson - EDU: Aug. 19, 1861 - about 175,000 issued
Scott 67a - 5¢ Brown Yellow Jefferson - EDU: Aug. 21, 1861
Scott 67b - 5¢ Olive Yellow Jefferson - EDU: Sep. 18, 1861
Scott 68 - 10¢ Yellow Green Washington - EDU: Aug. 20, 1861 - about 27 million issued
Scott 68a - 10¢ Dark Green Washington
Scott 69 - 12¢ Black Washington - EDU: Aug. 30, 1861 - about 7.3 million issued
The EDU of the 1861 24¢ is for the violet stamp on thin paper - see issues of 1862 for the red lilac Scott 70
Scott 70b - 24¢ Steel Blue Washington - EDU: Sep. 21, 1861
Scott 70c - 24¢ Violet Thin Paper Washington - EDU: Aug. 20, 1861
Scott 70d - 24¢ Thin Paper - Pale Gray Lilac Washington - EDU: Sep. 10, 1861
Scott 71 - 30¢ Orange Franklin - EDU: Aug. 20, 1861 - about 3.3 million issued
Scott 72 - 90¢ Blue Washington - EDU: Nov. 27, 1861 - about 388,700 issued

see also: Designs of the 1861-1868 Regular Issues

Commemoratives: The first Commemorative stamps were not issued until 1893
Special Delivery: The first Special Delivery stamps were not issued until 1885
Postage Dues: The first Postage Due Stamps were not issued until 1879


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